This paper examines the effects of season of birth and gender on academic achievement and cognitive abilities in children attending moderate learning difficulty schools. Given the high preponderance of both boys and children born in summer attending special schools it is important to consider how well these children perform in relation to their peers. A multivariate analysis reveals that both boys and summer born children perform better on tests of intelligence, mathematical ability, and reading comprehension. Summer born children also perform better on a test of communication skills. Discriminant functions analysis reveals that for both gender and season of predictor variable followed by reading comprehension, mathematical ability and communication skill. For gender, IQ discriminates more successfully than the other variables, whereas with season of birth, the relative size of the effects are more equal. The results of the analysis are discussed in terms of the implications for the identification of children for placement in moderate learning difficulty schools.