At the European Conference on Eye Movements
My interests lie in how our knowledge of the world and of the context in which we encounter language enable us to understand what we are reading or listening to. Context and world knowledge are particularly important for understanding and anticipating the behaviour of story characters, and for comprehending certain types of figurative language, such as irony. I investigate these issues by studying reading behaviour (usually eye movements), as well as examining brain activity during the performance of language-related tasks.
I am also interested in more applied issues, such as communication in a healthcare setting, understanding the relationship between information processing and certain disorders (such as eating disorders), and the use of textual devices such as emoticons.
Roles and responsibilities:
Experimental Psychology Society conference secretary
Associate Editor Journal of Cognitive Psychology
Editorial board Journal of Memory and Language
Principal Investigator: Dr. Ruth Filik
Co-Investigator: Prof. Rachel Giora (Tel Aviv University)
Funded by: British Academy International Partnership and Mobility Scheme
Sarcasm is very common in everyday language; however, how we make sense of it is still widely disputed. To advance our knowledge in this area, in this project we are using cutting-edge techniques in Psychology to test the predictions of leading linguistic theories. Specifically, we are conducting a series of experiments in which we monitor participants’ eye movements while they are reading sarcastic texts, to help us detect the key factors involved in understanding sarcastic utterances. Some of the findings from this project are reported in our special issue of Metaphor & Symbol.Special Issue
Principal Investigator: Dr. Ruth Filik
Co-Investigator: Prof. Hartmut Leuthold (University of Tuebingen)
Funded by: ESRC
People often use ironic language in everyday conversation. For example, if someone does something stupid, their friend may make the comment, “That was clever!”, which on the surface of it, is the opposite of what they actually mean. Given the risk of misunderstanding, it seems likely that using irony serves some other communicative function, such as evoking a particular emotional response in the recipient. The aim of this project was to investigate the emotional impact of verbal irony, as well as the influence of emoticons and other textual devices.
Results from rating studies showed that ironic criticism was judged as less negative than literal criticism, and ironic praise as less positive than literal praise, suggesting that irony serves to mute emotional impact (Filik et al., 2016). In contrast, more immediate emotional responses to irony were found to be enhanced compared to those for literal language (Filik et al., 2015). This apparent contradiction can be reconciled by eye-tracking data suggesting that sarcasm ‘stings’ initially, but is then later rationalised as being more amusing than literal criticism (Filik et al., 2017).
Irony and emoticons
Devices such as emoticons often accompany irony in computer-mediated communication. Rating studies (Filik et al., 2016) showed that if the sarcastic meaning of a comment can be easily deduced from the context, adding a device (e.g., ;-), :-p, !, or …) will not aid comprehension. However, if the receiver cannot tell from the context whether the comment is intended sarcastically, using an emoticon may reduce misunderstanding.
In support of this, production studies (Thompson & Filik, 2016) showed that when participants are asked to produce a sarcastic message or modify an ambiguous message to clarify its meaning, emoticons (especially ;-) and :-p) were commonly used to indicate sarcastic intent.
Using psychophysiological measures to capture emotional responses showed higher emotional arousal accompanied by reduced frowning and enhanced smiling for messages with rather than without an emoticon, suggesting that emoticons increase positive emotions (Thompson et al., 2016).More research outcomes
Filik, R., Țurcan, A., Ralph-Nearman, C., & Pitiot, A. (2019). What is the difference between
irony and sarcasm? An fMRI study. Cortex, 115, 112-122.
Kunkel, A., Filik, R., Mackenzie, I. G., & Leuthold, H. (2018). Task-dependent evaluative processing of
moral and emotional content during comprehension: An ERP study. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral
Neuroscience, 18, 389-409.
Ralph-Nearman, C., & Filik, R. (2018). Eating disorder symptomatology and body mass index are associated
with readers’ expectations about character behavior: Evidence from eye-tracking during reading.
International Journal of Eating Disorders, 51, 1070-1079.
Filik, R., Howman, H., Ralph-Nearman, C., & Giora, R. (2018). The role of defaultness and personality
factors in sarcasm interpretation: Evidence from eye-tracking during reading. Metaphor and Symbol, 33,
Pickering, B., Thompson, D., & Filik, R. (2018). Examining the emotional impact of sarcasm using a
virtual environment. Metaphor and Symbol, 33, 185-197.
Wen, Y., Filik, R., & van Heuven, W. J. B. (2018). Electrophysiological dynamics of Chinese phonology
during visual word recognition in Chinese-English bilinguals. Scientific Reports, 8, 1-10.
Ralph-Nearman, C., & Filik, R. (2018). New body scales reveal body dissatisfaction, thin-ideal, and
muscularity-ideal in males. American Journal of Men’s Health, 12, 740-750.
Bohan, J., & Filik, R. (2018). Perspective effects during reading: Evidence from text change-detection.
Discourse Processes, 55, 113-122.
Filik, R., Brightman, E., Gathercole, C., & Leuthold, H. (2017). The emotional impact of verbal
irony: Eye-tracking evidence for a two-stage process. Journal of Memory and Language, 93,
Thompson, D., Mackenzie, I. G., Leuthold, H., & Filik, R. (2016). Emotional responses to irony
and emoticons in written language: Evidence from EDA and facial EMG. Psychophysiology, 53,
Thompson, D., & Filik, R. (2016). Sarcasm in written communication: Emoticons are efficient
markers of intention. Journal of Computer-mediated Communication, 21, 105–120.
Țurcan, A., & Filik, R. (2016). An eye-tracking investigation of written sarcasm comprehension:
The roles of familiarity and context. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and
Cognition, 42, 1867-1893.
Filik, R., Țurcan, A., Thompson, D., Harvey, N., Davies, H., & Turner, A. (2016). Sarcasm and
emoticons: Comprehension and emotional impact. Quarterly Journal of Experimental
Psychology, 69, 2130-2146.
Hall, S. S., Maltby, J., Filik, R., & Paterson, K. B. (2016). Keys skills for science learning: The
importance of text cohesion and reading ability. Educational Psychology, 36, 191-215.
Leuthold, H., Kunkel, A., Mackenzie, I. G., & Filik, R. (2015). Online processing of moral
transgressions: ERP evidence for spontaneous evaluation. Social Cognitive and Affective
Neuroscience, 10, 1021-1029.
Filik, R., Hunter, C. M., & Leuthold, H. (2015). When language gets emotional: Irony and the
embodiment of affect in discourse. Acta Psychologica, 156, 114-125.
Hall, S., Kowalski, R., Paterson, K. B., Basran, J., Filik, R., & Maltby, J. (2015). Local text
cohesion, reading ability and individual science aspirations: Key factors influencing
comprehension in science classes. British Educational Research Journal, 41, 122-142.
Filik, R., Leuthold, H., Wallington, K., & Page, J. (2014). Testing theories of irony processing
using eye-tracking and ERPs. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and
Cognition, 40, 811-828.
Hall, S., Basran, J., Paterson, K. B., Kowalski, R., Filik, R., & Maltby, J. (2014). Individual
differences in the effectiveness of text cohesion for science text comprehension. Learning and
Individual Differences, 29, 74-80.
Sauermann, A., Filik, R., & Paterson, K. B. (2013). Processing contextual cues to focus:
Evidence from eye movements in reading. Language and Cognitive Processes, 28, 875-903.
Filik, R., & Leuthold, H. (2013). The role of character-based knowledge in online narrative
comprehension: Evidence from eye movements and ERPs. Brain Research, 1506, 94-104.
Leuthold, H., Filik, R., Murphy, K., & Mackenzie, I. G., (2012). The on-line processing of
socioemotional information in prototypical scenarios: Inferences from brain potentials. Social
Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7, 457-466.
Filik, R., Leuthold, H., Moxey, L. M., & Sanford, A. J., (2011). Anaphoric reference to quantified
antecedents: An event-related brain potential study. Neuropsychologia, 49, 3786-3794.
Filik, R., & Barber, E., (2011). Inner speech during silent reading reflects the reader's regional
accent. PLOS ONE, 6, e25782.
Darker, I. T, Gerrett, D., Filik, R, Purdy, K. J., & Gale, A. G., (2011). The influence of 'Tall Man'
lettering on errors of visual perception in the recognition of written drug names. Ergonomics,
Moxey, L. M., & Filik, R. (2010). The effects of character desire on focus patterns and
pronominal reference following quantified statements. Discourse Processes, 47, 588-616.
Filik, R., & Moxey, L. M. (2010). The on-line processing of written irony. Cognition, 116, 421-
Filik, R., Price, J., Darker, I. T., Gerrett, D. G., Purdy, K. J., & Gale, A. G. (2010). The influence
of Tall Man lettering on drug name confusion: A laboratory-based investigation in the UK using
younger and older adults and healthcare practitioners. Drug Safety, 33, 1-11.
Paterson, K. B., Filik, R., & Moxey. L. M. (2009). Quantifiers and discourse processing.
Language and Linguistics Compass, 3, 1390-1402.
Filik, R., Paterson, K. B., & Liversedge, S. P. (2009). The influence of 'only' and 'even' on on-line
semantic interpretation. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 678-683.
Moxey, L. M., Filik, R., & Paterson K. B. (2009). On-line effects of what is expected on the
resolution of plural pronouns. Language and Cognitive Processes, 24, 843-875.
Filik, R., Sanford, A. J. & Leuthold, H. (2008). Processing pronouns without antecedents:
Evidence from event-related brain potentials. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20,
Filik, R. (2008). Contextual override of pragmatic anomalies: Evidence from eye movements.
Cognition, 106, 1038-1046.
Sanford, A. J., Filik, R., Emmott, C., & Morrow, L. (2008). They’re digging up the road again:
The processing cost of “Institutional They”. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61,
Paterson, K. B., Filik, R., & Liversedge, S. P. (2008). Competition during the processing of
quantifier scope ambiguities. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 459-473.
Filik, R., & Sanford, A. J. (2008). When is cataphoric reference recognised? Cognition, 107,
Paterson, K. B., Liversedge, S. P., Filik, R., Juhasz, B., White, S., & Rayner, K. (2007).
Processing contrastive focus during silent reading: Evidence from eye movements. Quarterly
Journal of Experimental Psychology, 60, 1423-1445.
Sanford, A. J., & Filik, R. (2007). “They” as a gender-unspecified singular pronoun: Eyetracking
reveals a processing cost. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 60, 171-178.
Filik, R., Purdy, K. J., Gale, A. G., & Gerrett, D. (2006). Labelling of medicines and patient
safety: Evaluating methods of reducing drug name confusion. Human Factors, 48, 39-47.
Poesio, M., Sturt, P. Artstein, R., & Filik, R. (2006). Underspecification and anaphora:
Theoretical issues and preliminary evidence. Discourse Processes, 42, 157-175.
Paterson, K. B., Liversedge, S. P., White, D., Filik, R., & Jaz, K. (2006). Children’s interpretation
of ambiguous focus in sentences with ‘only’. Language Acquisition, 13, 253-284.
Filik, R., Paterson, K. B., & Liversedge, S. P. (2005). Parsing with focus particles in context:
Eye movements during the processing of relative clause ambiguities. Journal of Memory and
Language, 53, 473-495.
Sanford, A. J. S., Sanford, A. J., Filik, R., & Molle, J. (2005). Depth of lexical-semantic
processing and sentential load. Journal of Memory and Language, 53, 378-396.
Filik, R., Paterson, K. B., & Liversedge, S. P. (2004). Processing doubly quantified sentences:
Evidence from eye movements. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 11, 953-959.
Filik, R., Purdy, K. J., Gale, A. G., & Gerrett, D. (2004). Drug name confusion: Evaluating the
effectiveness of capital (“Tall Man”) letters using eye movement data. Social Science and
Medicine, 59, 2597-2601.
Paterson, K. B., Liversedge, S. P., Rowland, C., & Filik, R. (2003). Children’s comprehension of
sentences with focus particles. Cognition, 89, 263-294.
Cece is currently pursuing a PhD investigating the impact of certain types of language use on the perception of victim testimony.
Specifically, she is interested in the employment of figurative language in forensically relevant settings and aims to discover discourse goals which ultimately aid in enhancing victim credibility.
Hannah is currently studying for an ESRC-funded PhD where she is examining why people with certain personality traits are more likely to engage in online harmful behaviours (such as cyberbullying, trolling, and cyberstalking).
She uses methods such as eye-tracking and EEG to investigate whether people who engage in online harmful behaviours have deficits in processing certain types of information. She also aims to develop an intervention to prevent people from engaging in these types of behaviours.
Tami is currently undertaking an ESRC-funded joint PhD studentship, which is hosted by the University of Nottingham and supported by the University of Leicester.
Tami’s research aims to investigate reading comprehension in both younger (18-30) and older adults (65+). To do this, she utilises eye-tracking technology coupled with psycholinguistic techniques to determine the role of experience and world knowledge when reading.
Christina’s PhD involved using eye-tracking to investigate factors that contribute to eating disorder symptomatology.
She is now a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Laureate Institute for Brain Research where she is developing novel assessment apps to measure perceptual and affective aspects of body concern. Her current focus is related to individuals with body dysmorphia, eating disorders, and special interest populations, such as fashion models.See on ResearchGate
Fabio completed his PhD on spatial language comprehension, and is now working in the School of English at the University of Nottingham.
His research investigates mental representations and imagery during processing of spatial descriptions and narratives. He primarily seeks to do so by studying the effects of linguistic manipulations and task instructions on behavioural performance and reading behaviour. He is interested in applying data-driven, machine learning approaches and knowledge of mental representations to the development of brain-computer interfaces, and is keen to pursue collaborations in this area.See on ResearchGate
During her PhD, Alexandra used eye-tracking to investigate written sarcasm comprehension. She is now a Data Scientist at Lockwood Publishing, working on a rapidly growing mobile game. She leverages statistics and machine learning to analyse large data sets with the aim of understanding player behaviour.
Her interests include academic topics related to inter-cultural communication, language development, and multilingualism, as well as data mining techniques, statistics, and programming. She is also keen to foster collaborations between academia and industry.See on ResearchGate
Dominic was a Postdoctoral Research Fellow on our ESRC-funded grant investigating the emotional impact of verbal irony. He is now an Assistant Professor in the School of English at The University of Nottingham.
His interests include how we respond emotionally and behaviourally to language, especially non-literal forms such as sarcasm. He is also interested in the roles that emoticons play in written communication: how they can be used to improve message clarity, and whether they impact emotional responses ;)See on Google Scholar
School of Psychology,
The University of Nottingham,
Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK
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